The Common Safety Methods (CSMs) describe how the safety levels, the achievement of safety targets and compliance with other safety requirements should be fulfilled.
The CSMs are directly applicable and enforceable in the Member States. Depending on their scope, they are applied either by authorities or bodies, or by specific actors of the railway system (e.g. railway undertakings, infrastructure managers, entities in charge of maintenance), or even by both.
The CSMs are established in accordance with Article 6 of Directive (EU) 2016/798.
This Regulation sets out:
It applies to the proposer as defined in Article 3(11) of Regulation (EU) No 402/2013 when making any change to the railway system in a Member State.
This Regulation sets out a harmonised framework for monitoring all safety-related processes. It shall be applied by railway undertakings, infrastructure managers and entities in charge of maintenance to enable the effective management of safety of the railway system during its operation and maintenance activities.
This Regulation provides a common purpose for supervision to make sure national safety authorities give appropriate effect to overseeing that the railway undertaking or infrastructure manager has and implements effectively its safety management system (SMS) so that the railway system operates safely.
It applies to national safety authorities only.
To support the assessment of how well a railway undertaking or infrastructure managers’ SMS is working, ERA has developed a maturity model. This model can be directly used via the ERA SMS app.
Download for mobile devices the ERA SMS app here:
This Regulation sets out Common Safety Targets (CSTs) with the aim of ensuring that safety performance does not decrease in any of the Member States. It provides in the short term control of safety performances and in the longer term, convergence of safety performance in Europe, through the use of national reference values (i.e. common ways of measuring and assessing safety performance on a macro level).
The assessment of achievement of CSTs is facilitated by the collection and use of a common set of rail safety data, the Common Safety Indicators (CSIs).
National safety authorities use CSIs to gather information from railway undertakings and infrastructure managers, which combined with other relevant data, makes a comparative analysis possible, and serves as basis for policy recommendations at EU level.
CSIs are based on common definitions and calculation methods, the data set is structured as follows:
ERA publishes these indicators in the ERAIL database and in its biennial Report on Railway Safety and Interoperability in the EU.
The annual report on the assessment of achievement of CSTs and the Report on Railway Safety and Interoperability in the EU are available in corporate publications.
Monitoring safety performance is a priority task of the Agency in its mission to promote a harmonised approach to railway safety in Europe.
These Regulations set out:
Regulations (EU) No 1158/2010 and (EU) No 1169/2010 are repealed with effect from 16 June 2025. They apply to safety certificates and safety authorisations issued in accordance with Directive 2004/49/EC until their expiry date. For the same reason, the national safety authorities should continue to apply them for the purposes of supervision.